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Almost all electronic devices beyond the simplest contain some firmware.Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory.The Apollo guidance computer had firmware consisting of a specially manufactured core memory plane, called "core rope memory", where data were stored by physically threading wires through (1) or around (0) the core storing each data bit.

Firmware can either provide a standardized operating environment for the device's more complex software (allowing more hardware-independence), or, for less complex devices, act as the device's complete operating system, performing all control, monitoring and data manipulation functions.

Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems, consumer appliances, computers, computer peripherals, and others.

In fact, the television's mother board has a complex firmware too.

is a type of computer program that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

As originally used, firmware contrasted with hardware (the CPU itself) and software (normal instructions executing on a CPU).

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